05 Июль, 2003
Neurological abnormalities help in diagnosis of idiopathic psychoses
LONDON Bennett Neurological examination abnormalities may help to distinguish between patients with different idiopathic psychoses, say US researchers. HMG - Health Newswire Professional via NewsEdge Corporation : LONDON By Claire Bennett Neurological examination abnormalities may help to distinguish between patients with different idiopathic psychoses, say US researchers.Previous studies had shown that patients with schizophrenia had higher scores on measures of neurological abnormalities compared to normal subjects. However, these results were limited by possible confounding factors, including prior use of neuroleptic medications and the chronic nature of the illness. These confounding factors could have been addressed by studying first-episode, never-treated schizophrenia patients. As a result, Dr Matcheri Keshavan, from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and colleagues examined the relationship between neurological examination abnormalities and alteration in brain structure in first-episode schizophrenia patients, those with non-schizophrenic psychoses and healthy comparison subjects. The three groups were compared on motor and cognitive neurological examination abnormalities using subscales of the Neurological Evaluation Scale. Alteration in brain structure was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging in a subset of patients. The researchers found that repetitive motor task performance was impaired in schizophrenia patients and in those with non-schizophrenic psychoses. These tasks do not, however, distinguish between the two patient groups. In contrast, cognitively demanding and perceptual tasks were markedly more impaired in schizophrenic patients than in patients with non-schizophrenic psychoses and healthy controls. Dr Keshavan says, Neurological examination abnormalities may have some measure of diagnostic specificity among the idiopathic psychoses. This observation is of clinical relevance and may help clarify the pathophysiological basis of schizophrenia, as contrasted with other psychoses. The team concludes that the findings provide neurobiological validation of abnormal findings on the neurological examination. And the researchers add that these abnormalities may reflect discrete neuroanatomical alterations in schizophrenia and may have a localising value. Reference: Keshavan et al, American Journal of Psychiatry 2003;160:1298-1304 HMG Worldwide 2003 http://www.health-news.co.uk/ Publication: HMG - Health Newswire Professional Distributed by Financial Times Information Limited <> << Copyright ©2003 Financial Times Limited, All Rights Reserved >>
03 Июль, 2003
Психиатрические эскизы из истории, Том I - П. И. Ковалевский
03 Июль, 2003
New study supports efficacy of schizophrenia treatment - Schizophrenia
In a study published by the American Journal of Psychiatry, data show that people with schizophrenia who were treated with Risperdal ConstaTM, a long-acting formulation in development of the most widely prescribed antipsychotic, risperidone, experienced significant symptom relief, with relatively low levels of side effects. Drug Week via NewsEdge Corporation : In a study published by the American Journal of Psychiatry, data show that people with schizophrenia who were treated with Risperdal ConstaTM, a long-acting formulation in development of the most widely prescribed antipsychotic, risperidone, experienced significant symptom relief, with relatively low levels of side effects. Risperdal Consta is currently approved in more than 20 countries. In the U.S., discussions are ongoing with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which issued a non-approvable letter based on questions related to certain aspects of the pre-clinical data. Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development (J & JPRD) recently filed a response to the letter to support approval. "Most experts believe that newer-generation, 'atypical' antipsychotics are the most effective and safest option for treating the symptoms of schizophrenia. Unfortunately, however, it is often difficult for patients with this disorder to take their medication consistently, on a daily basis. And when treatment is discontinued, the risk of relapse increases almost fivefold," said John Kane, MD, professor of psychiatry, neurology and neuroscience at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York. "With Risperdal Consta, we expect that patients will get the benefits of a modern-class medication, in a form that only needs to be administered every two weeks." In the 12-week, double-blind study, 400 patients with schizophrenia were randomized to receive injections of placebo or Risperdal Consta (25mg, 50mg or 75mg) once every two weeks. Significant improvement was seen at all doses studied in both positive symptoms (psychological disturbances "added" as a result of the disorder, such as hallucinations, delusions, suspiciousness and paranoia) and negative symptoms (normal functioning the patient has "lost," resulting in lack of initiative, social withdrawal, lack of expression and emotional withdrawal). An average of 45% of patients, depending on the dosage administered, saw a 20 percent or greater degree of symptom improvement. All doses of Risperdal Consta were well tolerated. The number of patients who dropped out of the study due to side effects was similar between the three groups receiving long-acting risperidone and those who took placebo (12% of the placebo group compared to 11, 12 and 14% of patients receiving a 25mg, 50mg or 75mg dose of risperidone once every two weeks, respectively). The most common side effects reported were headache, upset stomach, restlessness, drowsiness, constipation, fatigue and dry mouth. Rates of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), a concern with all antipsychotic medications, were similar between the groups receiving placebo (13%) and 25mg of Risperdal Consta (10%), the expected starting dose. At higher doses, EPS (such as slowness of movement, muscle spasms, or restlessness) rates were slightly higher among patients receiving the higher doses of Risperdal Consta compared to the placebo group (24% at 50mg and 29% at 75mg). Weight gain, another side effect of some antipsychotics, was minimal among patients receiving Risperdal Consta, ranging from 1.1 pound over the course of 12 weeks among those administered 25mg, to 2.6 pounds among the 50mg group and 4.2 pounds for patients taking 75mg. Patients enrolled in the study were given oral risperidone for one week at the start of the study. Oral treatment continued for another three weeks after the injections began to provide a smooth transition between the oral and injectable formulations. This article was prepared by Drug Week editors from staff and other reports. <> << Copyright ©2003 NewsRx.com >>
03 Июль, 2003
Cannabis link to psychosis
Very heavy use of cannabis could be a cause of psychosis, according to a leading psychiatrist who believes that society should think carefully about the potential consequences of its increasing use. The Guardian via NewsEdge Corporation : Very heavy use of cannabis could be a cause of psychosis, according to a leading psychiatrist who believes that society should think carefully about the potential consequences of its increasing use. Robin Murray, professor of psychiatry at the Institute of Psychiatry and consultant psychiatrist at the Maudsley hospital in London, says that in the last 18 months, there has been increasing evidence that cannabis causes serious mental illness. In particular, a Dutch study of 4,000 people from the general population found that those taking large amounts of cannabis were almost seven times more likely to have psychotic symptoms three years later. "This research must not be ignored," said Professor Murray, speaking at the annual general meeting of the Royal College of Psychiatrists in Edinburgh. Writing in the Guardian last August, Professor Murray said he had been surprised that the discussion around cannabis had skirted around the issue of psychosis. Psychiatrists had known for 150 years that very heavy consumption of cannabis could cause hallucinations and delusions. "This was thought to be very rare and transient until the 1980s when, as cannabis consumption rose across Europe and the USA, it became apparent that people with chronic psychotic illnesses were more likely to be regular daily consumers of cannabis than the general population." In the UK, he said, people with schizophrenia are about twice as likely to smoke cannabis. The reason appears to be the effect that the drugs have on chemicals in the brain. "In schizophrenia, the hallucinations and delusions result from an excess of a brain chemical called dopamine. All the drugs which are known to cause psychosis - amphetamine, cocaine and cannabis -increase the release of dopamine in the brain." Cannabis had been the downfall of many a promising student, he suggested. "Like any practising psychiatrist, I have often listened to the distraught parents of a young man diagnosed with schizophrenia tell me that as a child their son was very bright and had no obvious psychological problems. Then in his mid-teens his grades began falling. He started complaining that his friends were against him and that people were talking about him behind his back. "After several years of increasingly bizarre behaviour, he dropped out of school, job or university; he was admitted to a psychiatric unit overwhelmed by paranoid fears and persecution by voices. The parents tell me that, at some point their son was heavily dependent on cannabis." It used to be thought that the high numbers of psychotic patients taking cannabis could be explained because they used it to alleviate their symptoms. The recent studies, however, have looked at large populations without mental illness and studied the numbers of cannabis takers within them who have developed psychosis. Publication: The Guardian Distributed by Financial Times Information Limited <> << Copyright ©2003 Financial Times Limited, All Rights Reserved >>
30 Июнь, 2003
Избранные труды В.М. Бехтерева; Труды клиники на девичьем поле - П.Б. Ганнушкин.

Избранные труды В.М. Бехтерева;

Труды клиники на девичьем поле - П.Б. Ганнушкин.

23 Июнь, 2003
Новый раздел

Появился новый раздел "В центре внимания". Первый выпуск посвящен атипичным нейролептикам и содержит более 50-ти полных текстов статей об исследованиях этих препаратов

19 Июнь, 2003
Конференция WPA 19-22 июня 2003

Дорогие коллеги, Мы хотели бы особо обратить Ваше внимание на конференцию, которую намеревается провести WPA в Вене (19-22 июня 2003 г.).

Тема этой научной встречи представлена психиатрическому сообществу в выпуске «Nosology and Classification». Предполагается, что предметом научного обсуждения станет ряд комментариев к международной классификации болезней, касающихся, в частности, временной диагностической нестабильности для многих расстройств и состояний, злоупотребления понятием коморбидность при постановке психиатрического диагноза, что подрывает гипотезу о четком соответствии синдромов определенной этиологии.

Дальнейшая утрата специфичности терапии является скорее правилом чем исключением. Грубое и часто некорректное, не учитывающее национальных особенностей, внедрение критериев МКБ-10 и DSM-IV подрывает исследования этиологии психических расстройств. Конкретное использование рубрик МКБ в качестве диагнозов заболеваний, скорее скрывает истину, чем объясняет исследовательские данные.

Организаторы этой встречи хотели бы поощрить исследовательскую программу конференции, выходящую за пределы заполонивших все дименсиональных подходов. «Нам необходима классификация, в которой была бы интегрирована информация, полученная из всего разнообразия источников и технологий».

Тема этой встречи будет направляющей для дальнейшего развития психиатрической нозологии. Организаторы уверены в успехе этого научного сотрудничества, с привлечением ученых высокого калибра и организационных возможностей WPA.

Крайний срок подачи постеров - 25 февраля 2003 г.

Всю дополнительныю информацию Вы можете найти на домашней странице конференции: www.wpa2003vienna.at

Организаторы конференции:

Профессор, Президент WPA Axmed Okasha
Профессор психиатрии Женевского Университета,
Председатель научного комитета Norman Sartorius
Профессор Венского университета Heinz Katschig

18 Июнь, 2003
Пополнение в разделе Исследователям

в разделе для исследователей размещены шкалы PANSS, UKU, ESRS.

11 Июнь, 2003
Study published in Psychiatric journal supports efficacy of first long-acting, newer-generation schizophrenia treatment.
People with schizophrenia who were treated with Risperdal Consta - a new, long-acting formulation in development of the most widely prescribed antipsychotic, risperidone, experienced significant symptom relief, with relatively low levels of side effects, in a study published in the American Journal of Psychiatry. Chemical Business NewsBase - Press Release via NewsEdge Corporation : People with schizophrenia who were treated with Risperdal Consta - a new, long-acting formulation in development of the most widely prescribed antipsychotic, risperidone, experienced significant symptom relief, with relatively low levels of side effects, in a study published in the American Journal of Psychiatry. In the 12-week, double-blind study, 400 patients with schizophrenia were randomised to receive injections of placebo or Risperdal Consta (25 mg, 50 mg or 75 mg) once every two weeks. Significant improvement was seen at all doses studied in both positive symptoms and negative symptoms. An average of 45% of patients, depending on the dosage administered, saw a 20% or greater degree of symptom improvement. All doses of Risperdal Consta were well tolerated. Patients enrolled in the study were given oral risperidone for one week at the start of the study. Oral treatment continued for another three weeks after the injections began to provide a smooth transition between the oral and injectable formulations. The new, long-acting injectable formulation uses technology developed by Alkermes Inc, of Cambridge, MA, that allows the medication risperidone to be gradually released into the body. Based in Titusville, NJ, Janssen Pharmaceutica Products LP, a wholly owned subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson has a long track record in developing and marketing treatments for central nervous system disorders. Publication: Chemical Business NewsBase - Press Release Distributed by Financial Times Information Limited - Asia Africa Intelligence Wire <> << Copyright ©2003 Financial Times Limited, All Rights Reserved >>
10 Июнь, 2003
Researchers discover important genetic flaw in family - Schizophrenia
Researchers at the University of Alberta have discovered a genetic flaw in a family suffering with schizophrenia that may help to explain an important biochemical process implicated in the onset of the disease. Genomics & Genetics Weekly via NewsEdge Corporation : Researchers at the University of Alberta have discovered a genetic flaw in a family suffering with schizophrenia that may help to explain an important biochemical process implicated in the onset of the disease. Studying a British mother and daughter, the researchers discovered that both were found to have a "break" in a large gene on human chromosome 14, due to a rearranged chromosome. The broken gene is a member of a family of similar genes affecting brain development and function. The genes in this group are involved in behavior, memory and regulating day/night cycles. "The fact that these genes - important in brain development and behavior - are broken, cuts off important functions of the corresponding protein, particularly the ability to bind to DNA. Binding to DNA is an important way proteins can control the expression of other genes," said Professor Diane Cox, chair of the medical genetics department. "We believe this gene has all the features expected for a gene contributing to mental illness in this family." Under the supervision of Cox, the work was conducted by PhD graduate student, Deepak Kamnasaran, and is published in the Journal of Medical Genetics. Cox pointed out that schizophrenia is a complex disease and many genes are likely associated with its cause and development. "Our work isn't the whole story, but it helps us put in place a key piece of the puzzle that we can further explore." The authors include Kamnasaran (former University of Alberta graduate student, now a postdoctoral fellows at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto); Dr. Walter Muir (psychiatrist, Royal Edinburgh Hospital); Professor Malcolm Ferguson-Smith (Centre for Veterinary Science, Cambridge); and Cox (Medical Genetics, University of Alberta) (Disruption of the neuronal PAS3 gene in a family affected with schizophrenia. J Med Genet, 2003;40(5):325-32). Funding for the work was provided by the March of Dimes (USA) and studentships to Kamnasaran from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research. This article was prepared by Genomics & Genetics Weekly editors from staff and other reports. <> << Copyright ©2003 NewsRx.com >>