25 Ноябрь,2002 | Bipolar Disorder - New data suggest Zyprexa superior to lithium for preventing mania relapse
Zyprexa was found to be more effective than lithium in helping patients with bipolar disorder remain in remission and prevent relapse into mania, according to new data presented at the Third European Stanley Foundation Conference on Bipolar Disorder. Pain & Central Nervous System Week via NewsEdge Corporation : Zyprexa was found to be more effective than lithium in helping patients with bipolar disorder remain in remission and prevent relapse into mania, according to new data presented at the Third European Stanley Foundation Conference on Bipolar Disorder. The year-long study showed that in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder, patients taking Zyprexa relapsed into mania only half as often as patients taking lithium, which has long been considered a standard of care for stabilizing mood in bipolar disorder. The two treatments were comparable with regard to preventing relapse into depression. In addition, significantly more Zyprexa-treated patients completed the study and significantly fewer were hospitalized. "While both drugs performed well, Zyprexa was found to be superior to lithium. This is especially impressive from a clinical standpoint given that lithium has been the gold standard for decades for the prevention of mania," said Frederick Goodwin, MD, director, Center on Neuroscience, Medical Progress, and Society, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC. "This advance is very encouraging for the long-term treatment of the disease, meanwhile, we must continue our efforts to improve outcomes for bipolar depression." "What we have are two solid treatment options," said Mauricio Tohen, MD, PhD, Lilly Clinical Research Fellow, Lilly Research Laboratories. "This study provides further evidence that Zyprexa as a foundational treatment can help patients maintain dependable control in all phases of bipolar disorder, ultimately helping them to move their lives forward." This article was prepared by Pain & Central Nervous System Week editors from staff and other reports. <> << Copyright ©2002 NewsRx.com >>
25 Ноябрь,2002 | Anorexia - Appetite trigger leptin may be key
Researchers have spotted a likely new reason for bone loss that afflicts women and teenage girls who exercise so much or eat so little that they wind up starving themselves. Health & Medicine Week via NewsEdge Corporation : Researchers have spotted a likely new reason for bone loss that afflicts women and teenage girls who exercise so much or eat so little that they wind up starving themselves. The focus is on the appetite hormone leptin, which is produced by fat cells and influences brain chemistry that regulates appetite. When fat cells are plump, leptin levels are high. When fat cells are lean, leptin levels are low. But scientists believe leptin's role gets more complicated in people who eat far less than they require for normal metabolism. In these cases, the body reduces activities that are not vital, and building bone is among them. Researchers say very low leptin levels prevent bone cells from doing their normal job of building mineral in bone. "The bone goes to sleep," said Dr. Michelle P. Warren of Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center in New York City. "It's almost a hibernation, to conserve energy." Warren and colleagues at Columbia-Presbyterian reviewed research, including her own, in the October 2002 issue of the Physician and Sportsmedicine. They focused on girls and women whose energy deficit can lead to an exercise-associated amenorrhea - the loss of their regular monthly periods. Over time, women with this condition can lose bone, setting them up for increasingly fragile bones, including osteoporosis, as they age. A low-calorie, high-energy-output imbalance can happen because of the demands of physical activities - thinness is a valued characteristic in gymnasts and ballet dancers, for instance. It also can happen to those with anorexia, the compulsion to be thin. "Low leptin levels have been reported in amenorrheic women who exercise regularly at high levels," the journal said. Previous research had focused on estrogen, which declines in amenorrheic females. That was partly blamed for the shutdown of the reproductive system and loss of bone. The new research indicates it's not so simple. Estrogen and leptin seem to have different ways of doing damage, Warren said. While leptin loss retards new bone building, estrogen loss seems to take the brakes off other cells, called osteoclasts, which strip out old bone mineral, Warren said. The result would be double the bone vulnerability - growth is inhibited and loss is accelerated. Exercising this much also reverses what would otherwise be a healthy trend. "Physical activity is important in maintaining bone mass; however, many women tend to exercise excessively, causing hormonal changes that predispose them to an increased risk of fractures," the authors said. Warren said the leptin link is worthy of further study. But scientists say there is no sign now that leptin supplements would solve the bone-loss problem. Warren said the idea sounds promising but research to show it would spur new bone growth has not been done. In addition, the supplement might harm appetite in people who have calorie- balance problems, she said. It's also too soon for doctors to use leptin levels as an early warning sign of inadequate bone mass, said Dr. Carol Otis of Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic in Los Angeles, who did not work on the review article. Leptin is more properly "a marker of inadequate nutrition and weight loss," she said. And even use of low leptin levels as an indicator of calorie-balance problems could be misleading, Otis said. Leptin levels vary during the day, so several blood samples would be required, and normal reference levels of leptin in the blood have not been determined, she said. This article was prepared by Health & Medicine Week editors from staff and other reports. <> << Copyright ©2002 NewsRx.com >>
23 Ноябрь,2002 | Cannabis timebomb
TEENAGE cannabis- smokers dramatically increase their risk of suffering mental illness, doctors reveal today. Europe Intelligence Wire via NewsEdge Corporation : TEENAGE cannabis- smokers dramatically increase their risk of suffering mental illness, doctors reveal today. Youngsters face being struck by depression and schizophrenia in later life, according to three studies which back mounting evidence of the damaging effects of the drug. Researchers discovered that those who started using cannabis in their teens had a fourfold higher risk of being diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder, and the severity was linked to how long they had taken the drug. The findings, published in the British Medical Journal, show that the risks to mental health of the so-called 'soft' drug are far higher than previously thought. At least a third of UK youngsters have tried the drug, figures from the European School Survey of 15 and 16-year-olds show. Another report found that 79 per cent of children believe cannabis is 'safe'. The research on the health effects of the drug will shock many from a previous generation who for more than 30 years have claimed it is harmless. A study at King's College, London, led by Dr Louise Arsenault, proved for the first time that schizophrenia - characterised by delusions and hallucinations - can be triggered by using cannabis. The research followed 759 people in New Zealand from their birth in 1972 until the age of 26 in 1998. It found that young adolescents who used cannabis, especially those who started before they were 15, had more symptoms of schizophrenia as adults than nonusers. Those who began using the drug in their early teens were four times more at risk of developing serious psychiatric condition than nonusers. One in ten who used cannabis before the age of 15 developed schizophrenia by the age of 26 compared to three per cent of those who did not. Dr Arsenault said: 'The uniqueness of this study is that we could identify symptoms children had before they started using cannabis. 'As a result, we can say that cannabis can trigger schizophrenia rather than the drug being chosen by people predisposed to develop this illness. 'At the very least, cannabis use should be delayed until late teens. It is only in the 1990s that very young teenagers began using it, and we may find schizophrenia increasing in the next few years. 'Young people think cannabis is a cool and safe drug, but it's very dangerous.' In the second study, experts at Murdoch Children's Research Institute in Victoria, Australia, found that teenage girls who frequently used the drug were more likely to suffer depression and anxiety than other adolescents. Daily use of cannabis was linked to a more than fivefold increase in the risk, while weekly use resulted in a doubling of risk, said the study of 1,600 students. The third study, of more than 50,000 Swedish men, showed the use of cannabis increased the risk of schizophrenia by 30 per cent. The findings led to calls from the Royal College of Psychiatrists for the Government to halt moves which would effectively decriminalise cannabis use. Professor Drummond, a leading psychiatrist at St George's Hospital Medical School, London, and a member of the college's substance misuse faculty, said a relaxation of the law would lead to more young people using the drug and higher rates of mental illness. 'We need a major Government campaign to tell people about the risks of using cannabis,' said Professor Drummond. 'It must also invest in treating cannabis dependence, because more people are turning up at NHS addiction clinics with this problem. Police in South London have been running an 'experiment' in toleration of cannabis, which no longer leads to the automatic arrest of users. 'Experiments like Brixton send out the message that cannabis is a safe drug because the police think so,' said the professor. 'But research shows the dangers.' Doctors do not understand how cannabis increases the risk of mental illness, but suspect it affects production of the brain chemical dopamine. Marjorie Wallace, chief executive of mental health charity Sane, said, 'Research is increasingly confirming our concerns about the use of cannabis and its relation to mental illness.' <> << Copyright ©2002 Financial Times Limited, All Rights Reserved >>
05 Ноябрь,2002 | Early treatment of schizophrenia with atypical antipsychotics may improve outcome
Cannon TD, Huttunen MO, Dahlstr?m M et al. Antipsychotic drug treatment in the prodromal phase of schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2002:159:1230 - 2. Early drug treatment gives a better long-term outcome for patients with schizophrenia, possibly because it slows deterioration. This Finnish, multicentre, open-label trial showed that starting a low-dose atypical antipsychotic (risperidone) early improved thought and behaviour disturbances in prodromal and first-episode patients. Four prodromal high-risk adolescents (15 - 20 years) and six first-episode patients (16 - 35 years) were treated with average doses of 1.0 and 1.8mg/day respectively, for up to 12 weeks. The maximum daily dose was 2mg/day and 4mg/day for prodromal and first-episode patients, respectively, although this could be titrated downwards. Neurocognitive measures and symptom ratings were taken at baseline and two follow-ups. They were assessed by the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT; all subject) the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBC; prodromal) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS; first episode). On average, both groups significantly improved on the CVLT, and on their respective symptom measures (CBC and PANSS). There were minor adverse events (tremor/tic, exhaustion/anxiety, sedation, dystonia, dry mouth/rhinitis) in five subjects, but these resolved. This study was limited by the small group size, the lack of a placebo control group, and failure to control for practice effects on the neurocognitive tests. Nevertheless, all patients had consistent, statistically significant improvements. The authors concluded it was worth doing a more thorough clinical trial.
04 Ноябрь,2002 | Шизофрения.Ру
вновь заработал сайт www.schizophrenia.ru
02 Ноябрь,2002 | Конференция
02-04.10.2002 в Московском НИИ Психиатрии МЗ РФ прошла конференция "Социальные и клинические проблемы сексологии и сексопатологии".
04 Сентябрь,2002 | Шизофрения.Ру
Приносим пользователям огромные извинения за проблемы на наших серверах с 30.07.02 по 12.08.02. До сих пор не работает домен schizophrenia.ru, сайт можно посмотреть пока здесь, проблема будет устранена в ближайшее время. Открыт раздел "Болезнь и творчество"
04 Июль,2002 | Нервная анорексия - Коркина М. В., Цивилько М. А., Марилов В. В.
Нервная анорексия - Коркина М. В., Цивилько М. А., Марилов В. В.
02 Июль,2002 | Добавлены книги
Психопатии и акцентуации характера у подростков - Личко А.Е.,
Дисморфомания в подростковом и юношеском возрасте - Коркина М.В.,
Деперсонализация - Меграбян А.А
24 Июнь,2002 | Добавлены книги
Строение тела и характер - Эрнст Кречмер
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