28 Июль, 2003
Клинический архив гениальности и одаренности - 1925 год выпуск 2
22 Июль, 2003
Психиатрические эскизы из истории, Том II - П. И. Ковалевский.
21 Июль, 2003
Daughters of older fathers at increased schizophrenia risk
LONDON Newswire reporters Children born when their fathers are 50 or older are at increased risk of developing schizophrenia, according to Danish and US researchers.And the risk may be slightly higher in girls than in boys, suggesting that a new mutation on the X chromosome might be the cause of some cases of schizophrenia. HMG - Health Newswire Professional via NewsEdge Corporation : LONDON By Health Newswire reporters Children born when their fathers are 50 or older are at increased risk of developing schizophrenia, according to Danish and US researchers.And the risk may be slightly higher in girls than in boys, suggesting that a new mutation on the X chromosome might be the cause of some cases of schizophrenia. Previous studies have suggested that advanced parental age could be a risk factor for schizophrenia. However, most of these studies did not control for other risk factors, such as death of a parent, family psychiatric history, or socio-economic factors. To address this, Dr Majella Byrne, of Aarhus University in Denmark, and colleagues conducted a case control study which compared 7,704 patients with schizophrenia with 192,590 time-, age-, and sex-matched controls, together with their siblings and parents. All participants were identified using a number of Danish national databases. Because every person born in Denmark is given a unique personal identification number at birth, which is used in all national registers, including health records, the researchers were able to access details on parents and siblings of schizophrenia patients, together with family psychiatric histories. As expected, the researchers found that increasing parental age was associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia in their children. However, after allowing for the fact that older mothers tend to be married to older fathers, only paternal age emerged as a significant risk factor. And after allowing for other known risk factors for schizophrenia, particularly a history of mental illness in either parent, the researchers found that men born when their father was aged 55 or more were at double the risk of developing schizophrenia. In women, however, the relationship was even stronger. The team found that women born to fathers aged 50 or over were more than twice as likely to develop schizophrenia. This increased to a nearly fourfold risk in those born to fathers aged 55 or more. Reference: Byrne et al, Archives of General Psychiatry 2003;60:673-678 HMG Worldwide 2003 http://www.health-news.co.uk/ Publication: HMG - Health Newswire Professional Distributed by Financial Times Information Limited <> << Copyright ©2003 Financial Times Limited, All Rights Reserved >>
21 Июль, 2003
Rutgers receives $22.6 million to investigate genetics of mental disorders - Research Funding
Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, has been awarded a $22.6 million, 5-year grant by the U.S. Genomics & Genetics Weekly via NewsEdge Corporation : Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, has been awarded a $22.6 million, 5-year grant by the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to establish the Center for Collaborative Genetic Studies on Mental Disorders. The award is the result of a national competition lasting 8 months and involving several levels of review by scientists throughout the United States. The center will be engaged in efforts to discover the genetic bases of mental disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disease and depression. Its scientists also will investigate the genetics of responses to drug therapies for these disorders. The goals of the center are to identify inherited factors that determine individual likelihood for developing each disorder and to establish whether certain groups could be helped by medications tailored to their genetic makeup. This will involve university research and clinical studies in concert with the pharmaceutical industry. "This award reflects the great strides already made by Rutgers scientists and their colleagues in this area of research," said Rutgers President Richard L. McCormick. "We applaud their accomplishments and share with them in the belief that much more can be done to understand and combat these disorders that affect so many individuals and their families." Principal investigator for the center project is Jay Tischfield, Duncan and Nancy MacMillan Professor of Genetics and chair of the department of genetics at Rutgers, and professor of pediatrics and psychiatry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. "A decisive factor in this award was the Rutgers University Cell and DNA Repository (RUCDR), a world-renowned facility that supports research on the genetics of complex human diseases," said Tischfield. Established in 1998 on Rutgers' Busch campus, the RUCDR supports National Institutes of Health and privately funded charitable research on mental diseases; disorders such as heroin, cocaine and tobacco abuse; diabetes and obesity; and aging and longevity. "The center will play a critical role in future genetic studies on mental disorders in the postgenomic era," said Steven Moldin, NIMH project director for the center. "Rutgers has assembled a world-class research team with cutting-edge scientific expertise, and the center will foster collaborations, produce critical resources, and implement state-of-the-art methods to characterize the genetic basis of mental disorders. We expect that the center's activities will greatly accelerate the identification of disease-vulnerability genes and the development of new drug therapies," said Moldin, who is also director of the Office of Human Genetics and Genomic Resources and associate director of the Division of Neuroscience and Basic Behavioral Science at NIMH. The NIMH award includes a $2.1 million subcontract to Professor John Rice and colleagues at the Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis. Rice and Tischfield will serve as center codirectors. In addition, Rutgers' genetics faculty members Linda Brzustowicz, Steven Buyske, Douglas Fugman, Tara Matise, Amrik Sahota and David Toke are coinvestigators on the project. "Rutgers has played a key role in the recent progress made in identifying genes that determine an individual's risk for specific mental diseases," said Tischfield. "To take this research to the next stage of development will likely require the collaboration of many scientists and clinicians throughout the world." Center scientists will utilize their analytical and technical expertise to allow researchers worldwide to cooperate and share DNA and cell lines produced at Rutgers, as well as clinical and genetic data from thousands of individuals suffering from mental disorders. This article was prepared by Genomics & Genetics Weekly editors from staff and other reports. <> << Copyright ©2003 NewsRx.com >>
16 Июль, 2003
Диссертации:
14 Июль, 2003
Quarter of Australian teens depressed
BRISBANE, July 14 AAP - One-in-four teenagers experiences at least one episode of depression before they reach the age of 18, a researcher said today. AAP News via NewsEdge Corporation : BRISBANE, July 14 AAP - One-in-four teenagers experiences at least one episode of depression before they reach the age of 18, a researcher said today. University of Queensland PhD student Gabrielle O'Shea, who is conducting an Australian-first depression treatment program for teenagers, said the ratio was consistent with other western countries. But depression overall was increasing in teenagers at a younger age than ever before. "There does seem to be a rise in the incidents of depression in teens," Ms O'Shea said. "By the time adolescents are 18-years-old, approximately 25 per cent of them will have experienced at least one episode of depression. "Individuals who have been born in the later part of the 20th century seem to be at greater risk for developing depression and it also seems to be manifesting at a younger age." Ms O'Shea said there was a number of contributing factors including relationship problems, genetics and the environment. She is using Interpersonal Therapy for Adolescents (IPT-A), which was designed to assist depressed teenagers overcome their symptoms. It was developed initially by researchers in the early 1980s in the United States and used more recently by a therapist at the Columbia University in New York. Ms O'Shea said it was the first time the therapy was used to treat depression in teens in Australia. She said finding effective psychological treatments were vital as opposed to prescribing medication. "Anti-depressant medications have relatively poor results with this group and if left untreated depression in adolescents is likely to occur," Ms O'Shea said. The University of Queensland is looking for teens to take part in 12-week treatment programs later in the year. People interested need to be 13-18 years of age and not taking any anti-depressant medication. AAP ved/sc/rsm/jlw Publication: AAP News Distributed by Financial Times Information Limited - Asia Africa Intelligence Wire <> << Copyright ©2003 Financial Times Limited, All Rights Reserved >> This site is best viewed with Internet Explorer 5.0
10 Июль, 2003
Эдгар По и Всеволод Гаршин: Одна болезнь, одна судьба - П. Бологов
07 Июль, 2003
Пополнение в разделе Пособия
07 Июль, 2003
Fresh thinking in battle against schizophrenia
A CAMPAIGN launched in Bristol yesterday sets out to provide better help for thousands of schizophrenics. Western Daily Press via NewsEdge Corporation : A CAMPAIGN launched in Bristol yesterday sets out to provide better help for thousands of schizophrenics. It comes after an inquiry this week heard how Bristol paranoid schizophrenic Matthew Martin battered his father to death with an axe after being neglected by the authorities. About 60,000 people in the South West suffer from the condition which includes hallucinations, delusions and behavioural problems among its symptoms. Yet fewer than 20 per cent of patients have access to the best new treatments. The 1 in 100 initiative aims to tell sufferers and their carers about the medication and support they can get. Martin, who is now in a secure unit, slipped through the net after a catalogue of "missed opportunities" by mental health workers, prisons and social services, the report concluded. Although such tragedies are unusual, the 1 in 100 campaign aims to make people aware of the improvements in treatments and encourage better communication between patients, their families and the medical profession. The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (Nice), which decides what should be available on the NHS, is recommending that newly-diagnosed sufferers and those experiencing side effects from older antipsychotics should be offered new antipsychotic drugs. Paddy Cooney, director of Mental Health South West, which is supporting the campaign, said: "In light of the Nice guidelines for schizophrenia, we want everyone to be aware of what treatments are on offer, including both medications and psychological treatments, how they work, and how to get them." The newer type of medication, available in tablets, liquids and injections, targets a broader range of symptoms than before. David Dixon, 62, from near Wedmore, Somerset, suffered from manic depression for 10 years. "I started to lose touch with reality, couldn't make decisions and suffered hallucinations and voices in my head. Manic depression is quite similar to schizophrenia," he said. Yet after leaving his job as an engineer to take up writing and through the love and support of his family, Mr Dixon reclaimed his life. Now on the board of Mental Health South West, he said: "Statistics show that 25 per cent of schizophrenics can recover fully and 40 per cent can manage very well on the drugs. With drugs to get out of the cavity many more people can climb the mountain." Publication: Western Daily Press Distributed by Financial Times Information Limited <> << Copyright ©2003 Financial Times Limited, All Rights Reserved >>
05 Июль, 2003
Antipsychotic withdrawal symptoms "do not affect clozapine response"
LONDON Newswire reporters Symptom exacerbation following withdrawal of typical antipsychotics does not appear to reduce the subsequent response to clozapine in treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients, say US researchers. HMG - Health Newswire Professional via NewsEdge Corporation : LONDON By Health Newswire reporters Symptom exacerbation following withdrawal of typical antipsychotics does not appear to reduce the subsequent response to clozapine in treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients, say US researchers. There has been considerable debate about whether stopping antipsychotic medication affects long-term outcome in patients with schizophrenia. Some researchers have suggested that discontinuation of antipsychotics might be harmful. This has raised the question of whether the use of placebo washouts in clinical trials of patients with schizophrenia adversely affects the benefits of subsequent medication. To address this, Drs David Pickar and John Bartko from Gabriel Pharma in Cabin John, Maryland, examined the behavioural effects of drug washout and subsequent treatment with clozapine in 50 inpatients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Baseline treatment with a typical antipsychotic was given for an average of six weeks, before patients began a placebo washout period, which lasted at least four weeks. After the placebo washout, clozapine was initiated at 50 mg/day and increased gradually over 2 to 3 weeks. On average, optimal treatment with clozapine was observed after about 12 weeks, using a mean dose of 450.5mg/day. Psychiatrists, who were blind to the patients medication status, used the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) to measure the severity of symptoms every week. They assessed the impact of treatment by calculating the effect sizes for the BPRS total score. An effect size of 0.2 was considered small, 0.5 was medium and 0.8 was large. The researchers found that symptoms significantly worsened during the placebo washout. When patients were switched to clozapine, symptom scores were significantly better compared to baseline treatment and the placebo washout period. The effect sizes were 0.63 for baseline treatment versus placebo washout, 1.1 for optimal clozapine treatment versus placebo washout, and 0.82 for optimal clozapine treatment versus baseline treatment. The results, say the researchers, show that, although there is clinical deterioration after the discontinuation of a typical antipsychotic, this deterioration does not appear to detract from the subsequent response to clozapine. The study also confirms the value of clozapine in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, says the team. The enhanced therapeutic effectiveness of clozapine in seriously ill patients with schizophrenia was again demonstrated in this study, said Dr Pickar. Reference: Pickar and Bartko, American Journal of Psychiatry 2003;160:1133-1138 HMG Worldwide 2003 http://www.health-news.co.uk/ Publication: HMG - Health Newswire Professional Distributed by Financial Times Information Limited <> << Copyright ©2003 Financial Times Limited, All Rights Reserved >>