03 Июль,2003 | Cannabis link to psychosis
Very heavy use of cannabis could be a cause of psychosis, according to a leading psychiatrist who believes that society should think carefully about the potential consequences of its increasing use. The Guardian via NewsEdge Corporation : Very heavy use of cannabis could be a cause of psychosis, according to a leading psychiatrist who believes that society should think carefully about the potential consequences of its increasing use. Robin Murray, professor of psychiatry at the Institute of Psychiatry and consultant psychiatrist at the Maudsley hospital in London, says that in the last 18 months, there has been increasing evidence that cannabis causes serious mental illness. In particular, a Dutch study of 4,000 people from the general population found that those taking large amounts of cannabis were almost seven times more likely to have psychotic symptoms three years later. "This research must not be ignored," said Professor Murray, speaking at the annual general meeting of the Royal College of Psychiatrists in Edinburgh. Writing in the Guardian last August, Professor Murray said he had been surprised that the discussion around cannabis had skirted around the issue of psychosis. Psychiatrists had known for 150 years that very heavy consumption of cannabis could cause hallucinations and delusions. "This was thought to be very rare and transient until the 1980s when, as cannabis consumption rose across Europe and the USA, it became apparent that people with chronic psychotic illnesses were more likely to be regular daily consumers of cannabis than the general population." In the UK, he said, people with schizophrenia are about twice as likely to smoke cannabis. The reason appears to be the effect that the drugs have on chemicals in the brain. "In schizophrenia, the hallucinations and delusions result from an excess of a brain chemical called dopamine. All the drugs which are known to cause psychosis - amphetamine, cocaine and cannabis -increase the release of dopamine in the brain." Cannabis had been the downfall of many a promising student, he suggested. "Like any practising psychiatrist, I have often listened to the distraught parents of a young man diagnosed with schizophrenia tell me that as a child their son was very bright and had no obvious psychological problems. Then in his mid-teens his grades began falling. He started complaining that his friends were against him and that people were talking about him behind his back. "After several years of increasingly bizarre behaviour, he dropped out of school, job or university; he was admitted to a psychiatric unit overwhelmed by paranoid fears and persecution by voices. The parents tell me that, at some point their son was heavily dependent on cannabis." It used to be thought that the high numbers of psychotic patients taking cannabis could be explained because they used it to alleviate their symptoms. The recent studies, however, have looked at large populations without mental illness and studied the numbers of cannabis takers within them who have developed psychosis. Publication: The Guardian Distributed by Financial Times Information Limited <
30 Июнь,2003 | Избранные труды В.М. Бехтерева; Труды клиники на девичьем поле - П.Б. Ганнушкин.
23 Июнь,2003 | Новый раздел
Появился новый раздел "В центре внимания". Первый выпуск посвящен атипичным нейролептикам и содержит более 50-ти полных текстов статей об исследованиях этих препаратов
19 Июнь,2003 | Конференция WPA 19-22 июня 2003
Дорогие коллеги, Мы хотели бы особо обратить Ваше внимание на конференцию, которую намеревается провести WPA в Вене (19-22 июня 2003 г.).
Тема этой научной встречи представлена психиатрическому сообществу в выпуске «Nosology and Classification». Предполагается, что предметом научного обсуждения станет ряд комментариев к международной классификации болезней, касающихся, в частности, временной диагностической нестабильности для многих расстройств и состояний, злоупотребления понятием коморбидность при постановке психиатрического диагноза, что подрывает гипотезу о четком соответствии синдромов определенной этиологии.
Дальнейшая утрата специфичности терапии является скорее правилом чем исключением. Грубое и часто некорректное, не учитывающее национальных особенностей, внедрение критериев МКБ-10 и DSM-IV подрывает исследования этиологии психических расстройств. Конкретное использование рубрик МКБ в качестве диагнозов заболеваний, скорее скрывает истину, чем объясняет исследовательские данные.
Организаторы этой встречи хотели бы поощрить исследовательскую программу конференции, выходящую за пределы заполонивших все дименсиональных подходов. «Нам необходима классификация, в которой была бы интегрирована информация, полученная из всего разнообразия источников и технологий».
Тема этой встречи будет направляющей для дальнейшего развития психиатрической нозологии. Организаторы уверены в успехе этого научного сотрудничества, с привлечением ученых высокого калибра и организационных возможностей WPA.
Крайний срок подачи постеров - 25 февраля 2003 г.
Всю дополнительныю информацию Вы можете найти на домашней странице конференции: www.wpa2003vienna.at
Профессор, Президент WPA Axmed Okasha
18 Июнь,2003 | Пополнение в разделе Исследователям
11 Июнь,2003 | Study published in Psychiatric journal supports efficacy of first long-acting, newer-generation schizophrenia treatment.
People with schizophrenia who were treated with Risperdal Consta - a new, long-acting formulation in development of the most widely prescribed antipsychotic, risperidone, experienced significant symptom relief, with relatively low levels of side effects, in a study published in the American Journal of Psychiatry. Chemical Business NewsBase - Press Release via NewsEdge Corporation : People with schizophrenia who were treated with Risperdal Consta - a new, long-acting formulation in development of the most widely prescribed antipsychotic, risperidone, experienced significant symptom relief, with relatively low levels of side effects, in a study published in the American Journal of Psychiatry. In the 12-week, double-blind study, 400 patients with schizophrenia were randomised to receive injections of placebo or Risperdal Consta (25 mg, 50 mg or 75 mg) once every two weeks. Significant improvement was seen at all doses studied in both positive symptoms and negative symptoms. An average of 45% of patients, depending on the dosage administered, saw a 20% or greater degree of symptom improvement. All doses of Risperdal Consta were well tolerated. Patients enrolled in the study were given oral risperidone for one week at the start of the study. Oral treatment continued for another three weeks after the injections began to provide a smooth transition between the oral and injectable formulations. The new, long-acting injectable formulation uses technology developed by Alkermes Inc, of Cambridge, MA, that allows the medication risperidone to be gradually released into the body. Based in Titusville, NJ, Janssen Pharmaceutica Products LP, a wholly owned subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson has a long track record in developing and marketing treatments for central nervous system disorders. Publication: Chemical Business NewsBase - Press Release Distributed by Financial Times Information Limited - Asia Africa Intelligence Wire <> << Copyright ©2003 Financial Times Limited, All Rights Reserved >>
10 Июнь,2003 | Researchers discover important genetic flaw in family - Schizophrenia
Researchers at the University of Alberta have discovered a genetic flaw in a family suffering with schizophrenia that may help to explain an important biochemical process implicated in the onset of the disease. Genomics & Genetics Weekly via NewsEdge Corporation : Researchers at the University of Alberta have discovered a genetic flaw in a family suffering with schizophrenia that may help to explain an important biochemical process implicated in the onset of the disease. Studying a British mother and daughter, the researchers discovered that both were found to have a "break" in a large gene on human chromosome 14, due to a rearranged chromosome. The broken gene is a member of a family of similar genes affecting brain development and function. The genes in this group are involved in behavior, memory and regulating day/night cycles. "The fact that these genes - important in brain development and behavior - are broken, cuts off important functions of the corresponding protein, particularly the ability to bind to DNA. Binding to DNA is an important way proteins can control the expression of other genes," said Professor Diane Cox, chair of the medical genetics department. "We believe this gene has all the features expected for a gene contributing to mental illness in this family." Under the supervision of Cox, the work was conducted by PhD graduate student, Deepak Kamnasaran, and is published in the Journal of Medical Genetics. Cox pointed out that schizophrenia is a complex disease and many genes are likely associated with its cause and development. "Our work isn't the whole story, but it helps us put in place a key piece of the puzzle that we can further explore." The authors include Kamnasaran (former University of Alberta graduate student, now a postdoctoral fellows at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto); Dr. Walter Muir (psychiatrist, Royal Edinburgh Hospital); Professor Malcolm Ferguson-Smith (Centre for Veterinary Science, Cambridge); and Cox (Medical Genetics, University of Alberta) (Disruption of the neuronal PAS3 gene in a family affected with schizophrenia. J Med Genet, 2003;40(5):325-32). Funding for the work was provided by the March of Dimes (USA) and studentships to Kamnasaran from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research. This article was prepared by Genomics & Genetics Weekly editors from staff and other reports. <> << Copyright ©2003 NewsRx.com >>
29 Май,2003 | Antipsychotic drugs may reduce diabetes risk in mentally ill - Psychosis
Two related University at Buffalo studies examining the incidence of diabetes and related conditions among patients suffering from schizophrenia or bipolar disorder indicate that it is the illness - not the atypical antipsychotic medications used to treat the disorders - that contributes to the increased incidence of diabetes in these patients. Drug Week via NewsEdge Corporation : Two related University at Buffalo (UB) studies examining the incidence of diabetes and related conditions among patients suffering from schizophrenia or bipolar disorder indicate that it is the illness - not the atypical antipsychotic medications used to treat the disorders - that contributes to the increased incidence of diabetes in these patients. The findings suggest that the atypical antipsychotics, second-generation antipsychotic medications that became available after 1991, such as Clozaril (clozapine), Zyprexa (olanzapine), Risperdal (risperidone) and Seroquel (quetiapine fumarate), may actually have a protective effect against diabetes. The results seem to contradict growing fears that antipsychotic medications cause the increased rate of diabetes in patients with these mental illnesses, fears that recently led Japan and the European Union to require one atypical antipsychotic to include warnings about diabetes-related complications in its product information sheets. The studies were conducted by researchers in the department of pharmacy practice in the UB School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. One study was presented in a poster session at the annual conference of the College of Psychiatric and Neurologic Pharmacists in Charleston, South Carolina. The other was presented in a poster session at the annual conference of the American Psychiatric Association in San Francisco. Based on the findings, the UB researchers concluded that psychiatric care for patients with the two disorders should be modified to include routine screening for diabetes (type 2), hypertension and obesity. They also suggested that severe mental illness should be listed, along with family history of diabetes, as a primary risk factor for diabetes. "According to our findings in these studies, an association between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and diabetes seems to exist independent of any antipsychotic use," said Terrance Bellnier, RPh, assistant clinical professor of pharmacy practice, director of psychiatric pharmacy practice at UB and coauthor of the study. "The question is, whether these drugs induce diabetes at the same rate, or it's the mental illness itself - what we're using the drugs for - that induces diabetes," Bellnier said. "That's the question we tried to answer." More than 2 million Americans suffer from schizophrenia and the same number suffer from bipolar disorder. Diabetes is estimated to affect more than 15 million Americans. Data in the study presented at the annual conference of the American Psychiatric Association demonstrate that an increased incidence of diabetes among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder predates the use of antipsychotic medications to treat the disorders. That study, based on a retrospective review of medical data for 569 randomly selected patients with the two disorders admitted to a state psychiatric hospital between 1940 and 1950, before antipsychotic medications were available, found that metabolic disturbances were significantly greater in those patients than among the general population. According to the results, the rate of diabetes among the patients was 20.9%, or 10 times that reported at that time for the general population. The incidence of hypertension was 29.1%, compared to 16.5% in the general population, and the incidence of "overweight" was 28.2% versus 21.8% in the general population. The other UB study compared in a matched-pair analysis the data for these untreated patients with data from 569 patients admitted to a state psychiatric hospital between 1999 and 2002, all of whom were treated with atypical antipsychotics. In patients treated with the medications, the rate of diabetes was 10.4%, half of what was reported in the group that received no medication, and slightly more than twice the rate reported in the general population. The second study also found that the incidence of hypertension in the treated patients was 15.6%, compared to 7.2% in the general population, while hypertension in the untreated population was nearly twice as prevalent. "When you effectively treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, you reduce most of these other metabolic risk factors," said Bellnier. "While the incidence of diabetes has actually gone up in the general population since the 1940s and 1950s, our study shows it has gone down significantly in patients being treated with antipsychotic medications, so these antipsychotic drugs may actually have a protective effect," he said. According to Bellnier, it is possible that hypercortisolemia, the elevated levels of cortisol - the hormone secreted by the adrenal gland in response to stress - may contribute to metabolic syndrome in severely mentally ill patients. "When you effectively treat these disorders and therefore reduce the psychotic and manic episodes associated with the elevation of cortisol, then you may also be protecting them from diabetes," he said. According to the study's authors, one metabolic disturbance did increase with the use of antipsychotic medications and that was the incidence of patients considered overweight. While untreated patients had an incidence of "overweight" of 28.2%, vs. 21.8% in the general population at that time, the incidence of "overweight" in the treated population was 68.6%, compared to 37% in the general population at that time. Bellnier said this striking statistic provides strong evidence of a connection between the use of multiple psychotrophics, such as antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers and anticonvulsants, and the incidence of overweight in severely mentally ill patients. Still, he noted, this single metabolic disturbance does not account for the incidence of diabetes among these patients. "Obesity alone does not explain it. You can be heavy for years and not develop diabetes," he said. Based on their findings, the UB researchers concluded that psychiatric care should be modified to include routine screening for diabetes, hypertension and obesity. "An enormous amount of energy has been wasted in trying to blame one drug over another as the cause of this higher risk," said Bellnier. "What we need to do now is to raise the bar a little in caring for these patients so that they now receive the same routine screening for diabetes and related conditions that the general population receives." According to Bellnier, advocates for the mentally ill have, for good reason, focused primarily on good psychiatric care. "But we've moved into an era where that care is available," said Bellnier. "These patients are predisposed to metabolic disturbances and they deserve the same care that everyone else gets. And ultimately, when they start getting preventive care or treatment for these conditions, instead of emergency care because their diabetes has never been treated, there will be a major economic benefit to the health care system as well." Funded by UB, the studies were coauthored by Bellnier's postdoctoral fellow, Adam Decatur, PharMD; Kashinath Patil, MD, assistant clinical professor, department of psychiatry, University of Rochester, and Tulio Ortega, MD, adjunct assistant clinical professor, UB department of pharmacy practice. This article was prepared by Drug Week editors from staff and other reports. <> << Copyright ©2003 NewsRx.com >>
27 Май,2003 | VI Научная конференция молодых ученых посвященная памяти академика А.В. Снежневского
27 мая 2003 года состоится VI научная конференция молодых ученых посвященная памяти академика А.В. Снежневского.
Председатели: академик РАМН А.С.Тиганов, проф. Д.Д.Орловская
10.30-11.00 Вступительное слово академика РАМН, профессора А.С. Тиганова.
11.00-11.15 Сюняков Т.С. К проблеме сдвоенных психогенно спровоцированных аффективных фаз при реактивной шизофрении.
11.15-11.30 Иконников Д.В. Реакции капитуляции у больных шизофренией (клинические аспекты.
11.30-11.45 Бурлаков А.В. Психические расстройства в предоперационном периоде аорто-коронарного шунтирования.
11.45-12.00 Самушия М.А. Психические расстройства в отдаленном периоде аорто-коронарного шунтирования (психопатология, психосоматические корреляции, прогностическое значение).
12.00-12.15 Медведев В.Э. Сезонные аффективные расстройства у больных вялотекущей шизофренией.
12.15-12.30 Крылова Е.С. Клинико-психопатологические и терапевтические аспекты юношеских депрессий с симптомокомплексом «метафизической интоксикации».
12.30-12.45 Красноперова М.Г. Манифестный инфантильный психоз, завершающийся формированием дефицитарных состояний типа детского аутизма (клинико-психопатологические особенности, типология).
12.45-13.00 Этингоф A.M. Клинико-психопатологические особенности юношеских дисморфофобических депрессий.
13.00-13.15 Шмакова О.П. Особенности школьной адаптации детей и подростков с психическими расстройствами.
13.15-13.30 Щеглова Е.Ю. Катамнез депрессивных эпизодов, впервые возникших в позднем возрасте.
13.30-13.45 Михайлова И.И. Виды самостигматизации психически больных.
13.45-14.00 Серебрийская Л.Я. Стереотипы психического заболевания в общественном сознании.
14.00-14.15 Степанова А.Ф. Потребность пациентов ПНД в психосоциальных формах помощи.
Конференция состоится в здании НЦПЗ РАМН по адресу: 115522 Москва, Каширское шоссе 34
13 Май,2003 | New, more convenient form of leading schizophrenia medication Risperdal now available.
A new, fast-dissolving form of the schizophrenia medication Risperdal will be launched during the second week of May 2003. Risperdal M-Tab dissolves in seconds when placed on the tongue. Chemical Business NewsBase - Press Release via NewsEdge Corporation : A new, fast-dissolving form of the schizophrenia medication Risperdal (risperidone) will be launched during the second week of May 2003. Risperdal M-Tab dissolves in seconds when placed on the tongue. Risperdal, marketed by Janssen Pharmaceutica Products LP, is the most widely prescribed antipsychotic medication in the US. Risperdal M-Tab tablets are produced using freeze-drying technology, creating highly porous tablets that rapidly disintegrate upon contact with saliva. The coral-coloured, peppermint-flavoured tablets will be available in 0.5 mg, 1 mg and 2 mg doses and are bioequivalent to comparable dosages of the original-formulation tablets. In clinical trials, Risperdal was generally well tolerated. Based in Titusville, NJ, Janssen Pharmaceutica Products LP, a wholly owned subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson, has a long track record in developing and marketing treatments for central nervous system disorders. Publication: Chemical Business NewsBase - Press Release Distributed by Financial Times Information Limited - Asia Africa Intelligence Wire <> << Copyright ©2003 Financial Times Limited, All Rights Reserved >>
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