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25 Август,2003 | Stanford, Packard Research Finds Better Drug Therapy for Children Predisposed to Bipolar Disorder

STANFORD, Calif.--(BUSINESS Children with psychiatric problems who also have a high risk of developing bipolar disorder respond well to a mood-stabilizing drug, according to a study that is the first to examine the drug's effect on children predisposed to bipolar disorder. Business Wire via NewsEdge Corporation : STANFORD, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Aug. 25, 2003--Children with psychiatric problems who also have a high risk of developing bipolar disorder respond well to a mood-stabilizing drug, according to a study that is the first to examine the drug's effect on children predisposed to bipolar disorder. The researchers at Stanford University School of Medicine and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital say determining the correct medication for these children is crucial because standard drug therapies, such as antidepressants and stimulants, may in fact trigger manic episodes, exacerbating their underlying condition. In a study published in the August issue of the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, the researchers found that more than three-quarters of these at-risk children showed improvement in their mood or behavioral disorders after receiving a drug called divalproex. The drug, used to treat mania in adults, essentially "cools off the brain," said Kiki Chang, MD, assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the School of Medicine and a psychiatrist at Packard Children's Hospital. Bipolar disorder affects 2.2 million Americans, who experience extreme and debilitating highs and lows. Children known as "bipolar offspring" -- who have a parent with bipolar disorder but have not yet developed the disorder themselves -- and who suffer from other psychiatric problems are more likely to develop the disease. Researchers studied 23 bipolar offspring between the ages of 6 and 18 who had attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or ADHD, depression or other mood disorders. These children showed signs of depression or mania but did not meet the criteria for bipolar I or II disorder, though they were considered at risk. Previous studies have estimated that bipolar offspring have up to a 24 percent chance of developing the disease, and ADHD might be a predictor. Researchers evaluated patients at the start of the trial, assessing them for manic and depressive symptoms and determining the severity of their conditions. After stopping any current medications, the children took divalproex for 12 weeks and underwent periodic re-evaluations. While there was no placebo control group, researchers monitored the participants for a relatively long time, said Chang, first author of the paper. Of the study participants, 78 percent were "very much improved" or "much improved" in their mood or behavioral disorders and 82 percent showed at least a 50 percent decrease in their ratings of depressive or manic symptoms. Children with depression responded dramatically to the medication after as little as one week of treatment. "What was most surprising was how quickly the patients responded, and that patients with depression responded so well to divalproex," Chang said. While traditional drugs are effective for most children, they can lead to an earlier onset of a manic episode for children at risk of bipolar disorder. The trick then becomes to determine which children are likely to be predisposed to the illness. Chang and his colleagues in the Stanford Pediatric Bipolar Disorders Program are conducting separate studies investigating the genetics and brain physiology of bipolar offspring to search for indicators. The scientists are also designing another divalproex experiment with a placebo component and will conduct a study monitoring these children to determine if, and when, they develop bipolar disease. They will also investigate non-drug interventions, such as family-focused therapies. "Our goal is to identify these children early for treatment and perhaps prevention," he said. "If we can prevent bipolar disease in childhood, we can prevent later treatment resistance and future complications like substance abuse, poor work and school performance, and even suicide." It is possible that divalproex not only relieves the mood and behavioral problems of bipolar offspring, but also delays or prevents the onset of the disorder, Chang noted. Studies of the drug in cell cultures and mice suggest that it can help protect the brain, but such studies have not been done in humans. For now, though, Chang hopes to alert psychiatrists to the possibility that children predisposed to bipolar disorder will respond poorly to standard medications for other mood and behavior disorders and that there are alternative treatment options. "We want to raise awareness about these kids and the idea that perhaps they will be better treated with mood stabilizers," he said. Families with at least one parent with bipolar disorder and a child with early indicators of the disorder or bipolar disorder itself and who are interested in participating in future studies can contact Meghan Howe at 650-736-2688 or meghowe stanford.edu. Volunteers will receive a full evaluation for all family members and may be eligible to participate in brain imaging, genetics or medication studies. Chang's co-authors are Kimberly Dienes, research assistant; Christine Blasey, PhD, research psychologist; Nancy Adleman, graduate student; Terence Ketter, MD, associate professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences; and Hans Steiner, MD, professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences. The research was supported by grants from Abbott Laboratories, which makes divalproex; the National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression; and the Klingenstein Third Generation Foundation. Stanford University Medical Center integrates research, medical education and patient care at its three institutions -- Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford Hospital & Clinics and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford. For more information, please visit the Web site of the medical center's Office of Communication & Public Affairs at http://mednews.stanford.edu. Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford is a 248-bed hospital devoted entirely to the care of children and expectant mothers. Providing pediatric medical and surgical services associated with Stanford University Medical Center, Packard offers patients locally, regionally and nationally the full range of health-care programs and services - from preventive and routine care to the diagnosis and treatment of serious illness and injury. To learn more about Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, please visit our Web site at www.lpch.org. CONTACT: Stanford University Michelle Brandt, 650-723-0272 (Print Media) mbrandt stanford.edu Robert Dicks, 650-497-8364 (Broadcast Media) robert.dicks medcenter.stanford.edu KEYWORD: CALIFORNIA INDUSTRY KEYWORD: CONSUMER/HOUSEHOLD PHARMACEUTICAL MEDICAL EDUCATION SOURCE: Stanford University Today's News On The Net - Business Wire's full file on the Internet with Hyperlinks to your home page. URL: http://www.businesswire.com <> << Copyright ©2003 Business Wire >>

21 Август,2003 | Homer gene mutations not linked to schizophrenia - Schizophrenia

Mutations in the Homer gene family are not associated with schizophrenia. "Homer proteins are a group of proteins that regulate group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor function. Drug Week via NewsEdge Corporation : Mutations in the Homer gene family are not associated with schizophrenia. "Homer proteins are a group of proteins that regulate group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor function. As altered glutamate function has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia, we have screened all three known Homer genes for sequence variation for use under the candidate gene association paradigm," researchers in Wales report. "We found seven SNPs, including three in exons," stated N. Norton and colleagues at the University of Wales. "Of these, none was non-synonymous. Allele frequencies of all the detected SNPs were estimated in DNA pools of 368 schizophrenics and 368 controls. Only one (Homer 1 IVS4 + 18A > G) was associated with schizophrenia in this sample, a finding confirmed by individual genotyping (p=0.01). However, in our extended sample of 680 cases and 671 controls, the evidence for association diminished (p=0.05)." The researchers concluded, "Our results suggest it is unlikely that sequence variants in the Homer genes contribute to the etiology of schizophrenia, but the variants we identified are plausible candidates for other neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Norton and associates published their study in the American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B - Neuropsychiatric Genetics (Mutation screening of the Homer gene family and association analysis in schizophrenia. Am J Med Genet Part B, 2003;120B(1):18-21). For additional information, contact M. J. Owen, Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 1F Tenovus, UHW, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK. E-mail: Owenmj cf.ac.uk. Publisher contact information for the American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B - Neuropsychiatric Genetics is: Wiley-Liss, Division of John Wiley and Sons Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158-0012, USA. The information in this article comes under the major subject areas of Schizophrenia, Psychiatric Disorder, Mutagenesis, and Proteomics. This article was prepared by Drug Week editors from staff and other reports. <> << Copyright ©2003 NewsRx.com >>

21 Август,2003 | Paraphrenia has hippocampal pyramidal cells, tangles, some amyloid plaque - Brain Disease Histology

Paraphrenia is characterized by preservation of hippocampal pyramidal cells, neurofibrillary tangles, and little amyloid plaque. Immunotherapy Weekly via NewsEdge Corporation : Paraphrenia is characterized by preservation of hippocampal pyramidal cells, neurofibrillary tangles, and little amyloid plaque. According to a study from the United States, "A recent article classifies paraphrenia within the tauopathy spectrum. More specifically, neurofibrillary changes appear restricted to the hippocampus and are accompanied by scant amyloid deposition. "The present study adds the preservation of hippocampal (CA1) pyramidal cell numbers to the neuropathological findings of paraphrenia," wrote M.F. Casanova and coauthors. The researchers concluded: "The lack of cell loss not only distinguishes paraphrenia from Alzheimer disease but offers, in addition, a marked similarity to a condition denoted in the medical literature as senile dementia with tangles." Casanova and colleagues published their study in Schizophrenia Research (Preservation of hippocampal pyramidal cells in paraphrenia. Schizophr Res, 2003;62(1-2):141-146). For more information, contact M.F. Casanova, Med College Georgia, Downtown VA Med Center 24, 26 Psychiatry Service, Room 3B-121, 1 Freedom Way, Augusta, GA 30910, USA. Publisher contact information for the journal Schizophrenia Research is: Elsevier Science BV, PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands. The information in this article comes under the major subject areas of Diagnostics, Histology, Proteomics and Neurology. This article was prepared by Immunotherapy Weekly editors from staff and other reports. <> << Copyright ©2003 NewsRx.com >>

19 Август,2003 | Любовь у помешанных - Чезаре Ломброзо

Любовь у помешанных - Чезаре Ломброзо

28 Июль,2003 | Клинический архив гениальности и одаренности - 1925 год выпуск 1

28 Июль,2003 | Клинический архив гениальности и одаренности - 1925 год выпуск 2

22 Июль,2003 | Психиатрические эскизы из истории, Том II - П. И. Ковалевский.

21 Июль,2003 | Daughters of older fathers at increased schizophrenia risk

LONDON Newswire reporters Children born when their fathers are 50 or older are at increased risk of developing schizophrenia, according to Danish and US researchers.And the risk may be slightly higher in girls than in boys, suggesting that a new mutation on the X chromosome might be the cause of some cases of schizophrenia. HMG - Health Newswire Professional via NewsEdge Corporation : LONDON By Health Newswire reporters Children born when their fathers are 50 or older are at increased risk of developing schizophrenia, according to Danish and US researchers.And the risk may be slightly higher in girls than in boys, suggesting that a new mutation on the X chromosome might be the cause of some cases of schizophrenia. Previous studies have suggested that advanced parental age could be a risk factor for schizophrenia. However, most of these studies did not control for other risk factors, such as death of a parent, family psychiatric history, or socio-economic factors. To address this, Dr Majella Byrne, of Aarhus University in Denmark, and colleagues conducted a case control study which compared 7,704 patients with schizophrenia with 192,590 time-, age-, and sex-matched controls, together with their siblings and parents. All participants were identified using a number of Danish national databases. Because every person born in Denmark is given a unique personal identification number at birth, which is used in all national registers, including health records, the researchers were able to access details on parents and siblings of schizophrenia patients, together with family psychiatric histories. As expected, the researchers found that increasing parental age was associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia in their children. However, after allowing for the fact that older mothers tend to be married to older fathers, only paternal age emerged as a significant risk factor. And after allowing for other known risk factors for schizophrenia, particularly a history of mental illness in either parent, the researchers found that men born when their father was aged 55 or more were at double the risk of developing schizophrenia. In women, however, the relationship was even stronger. The team found that women born to fathers aged 50 or over were more than twice as likely to develop schizophrenia. This increased to a nearly fourfold risk in those born to fathers aged 55 or more. Reference: Byrne et al, Archives of General Psychiatry 2003;60:673-678 HMG Worldwide 2003 http://www.health-news.co.uk/ Publication: HMG - Health Newswire Professional Distributed by Financial Times Information Limited <> << Copyright ©2003 Financial Times Limited, All Rights Reserved >>

21 Июль,2003 | Rutgers receives $22.6 million to investigate genetics of mental disorders - Research Funding

Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, has been awarded a $22.6 million, 5-year grant by the U.S. Genomics & Genetics Weekly via NewsEdge Corporation : Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, has been awarded a $22.6 million, 5-year grant by the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to establish the Center for Collaborative Genetic Studies on Mental Disorders. The award is the result of a national competition lasting 8 months and involving several levels of review by scientists throughout the United States. The center will be engaged in efforts to discover the genetic bases of mental disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disease and depression. Its scientists also will investigate the genetics of responses to drug therapies for these disorders. The goals of the center are to identify inherited factors that determine individual likelihood for developing each disorder and to establish whether certain groups could be helped by medications tailored to their genetic makeup. This will involve university research and clinical studies in concert with the pharmaceutical industry. "This award reflects the great strides already made by Rutgers scientists and their colleagues in this area of research," said Rutgers President Richard L. McCormick. "We applaud their accomplishments and share with them in the belief that much more can be done to understand and combat these disorders that affect so many individuals and their families." Principal investigator for the center project is Jay Tischfield, Duncan and Nancy MacMillan Professor of Genetics and chair of the department of genetics at Rutgers, and professor of pediatrics and psychiatry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. "A decisive factor in this award was the Rutgers University Cell and DNA Repository (RUCDR), a world-renowned facility that supports research on the genetics of complex human diseases," said Tischfield. Established in 1998 on Rutgers' Busch campus, the RUCDR supports National Institutes of Health and privately funded charitable research on mental diseases; disorders such as heroin, cocaine and tobacco abuse; diabetes and obesity; and aging and longevity. "The center will play a critical role in future genetic studies on mental disorders in the postgenomic era," said Steven Moldin, NIMH project director for the center. "Rutgers has assembled a world-class research team with cutting-edge scientific expertise, and the center will foster collaborations, produce critical resources, and implement state-of-the-art methods to characterize the genetic basis of mental disorders. We expect that the center's activities will greatly accelerate the identification of disease-vulnerability genes and the development of new drug therapies," said Moldin, who is also director of the Office of Human Genetics and Genomic Resources and associate director of the Division of Neuroscience and Basic Behavioral Science at NIMH. The NIMH award includes a $2.1 million subcontract to Professor John Rice and colleagues at the Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis. Rice and Tischfield will serve as center codirectors. In addition, Rutgers' genetics faculty members Linda Brzustowicz, Steven Buyske, Douglas Fugman, Tara Matise, Amrik Sahota and David Toke are coinvestigators on the project. "Rutgers has played a key role in the recent progress made in identifying genes that determine an individual's risk for specific mental diseases," said Tischfield. "To take this research to the next stage of development will likely require the collaboration of many scientists and clinicians throughout the world." Center scientists will utilize their analytical and technical expertise to allow researchers worldwide to cooperate and share DNA and cell lines produced at Rutgers, as well as clinical and genetic data from thousands of individuals suffering from mental disorders. This article was prepared by Genomics & Genetics Weekly editors from staff and other reports. <> << Copyright ©2003 NewsRx.com >>

16 Июль,2003 | Диссертации:








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